Nikolai Ivanovich Grashchenkov (26.03.1901, v. Zaborye, Smolensk region, Russia – 08.10.1965), a scientist in the field of neurology and neurosurgery. Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (1947), Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1939), Academician of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR (1944), Doctor of Medical Sciences (1935), Professor (1938). Member of the 1st World War and the Great Patriotic War.
— Graduated from Moscow University (1926) and the Institute of Red Professors. (1932).
— In 1932-1933 - Director of the Institute of Higher Nervous Activity, in 1933-1944 - Head of the Department of the All-Union Institute of Experimental Medicine. In 1935-1937 - was on a scientific mission in England and the United States.
— Since 1937 - 1st Deputy People's Commissar of Health of the USSR, since 1939 - Director of the All-Union Institute of Experimental Medicine. During the Great Patriotic War - Consultant on Neuropathology and Neurosurgery in the army.
— Since 1944 - Director of the Institute of Neurology of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR.
— In 1947-1951 - President of the Academy of Sciences of the BSSR and at the same time since 1948 - Director of the Institute of Theoretical Medicine of the Academy of Sciences of the BSSR.
— Since 1951 - Head of the Department of Neuropathology at the Central Institute of Advanced Medical Studies and the Clinical and Physiological Laboratory of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, since 1958 - the 1st Moscow Medical Institute.
— In 1959-1961 - Deputy General Director of the World Health Organization.
Works on the physiology and pathology of the sense organs, diencephalic pathology, electrophysiology, traumatic and infectious diseases of the central nervous system. He studied and described the gas gangrene of the brain, proposed complex methods of treatment of gunshot wounds of the spine. Laid the foundations of neurosurgery in Belarus. He founded the Neurosurgical Center at the Institute of Neurology, Physiotherapy and Neurosurgery.
Published over 270 scientific papers, of which 4 monographs.
Awarded with the Order of Lenin (1945), the Red Banner (1943), the Labor Red Banner (1945, 1949), medals.