Grashchenkov, Nikolai Ivanovich (26.3.1901 - 08.10.1965), scientist in neurology and neurochirurgy. The academician the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (1947), Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of USSR (1939), Academician of the Academy of Medical Sciences of USSR (1944), Doctor of Medical Sciences (1935), Professor (1938). The participant of the First and Second World Wars. Was awarded the Order of Lenin (1945), Order of the Red Banner (1943), two Orders of the Labour Red Banner (1945, 1949), and some medals.
Graduated from the Moscow State University (1926) and Institute of Red Professorate (1932). In 1932-1933 Director of the Institute of Higher Nervous Activity, in 1933-1944 Head of the Department of Physiology and Pathology of Sense Organs of All-Union Institute of Experimental Medicine, simultaneously in 1935-1937 was on scientific trip in England and USA. From 1937 - the 1st Assistant of People's Commissar of Public Health Services of USSR, from 1939 Director of All-Union Institute of Experimental Medicine. During Domestic War the Adviser for questions of neuropathology and neurochirurgy in working army. From 1944 the Director of the Institute of Neurology of the Academy of Medical Sciences of USSR. In 1947-1951 the President of the Academy of Sciences of Byelorussian SSR and simultaneously from 1948 Director of the Institute of Theoretical Medicine of the Academy. From 1951 Head of the Chair of Neuropathology of Central Institute of Improvement of the Doctors and Clinical-physiological Laboratory of the Academy of Sciences of USSR and the Academy of Medical Sciences of USSR, from 1958 - in the 1st Moscow Medical Institute. In 1959-1961 Assistant of the General Director of World Health Organization.
Works on physiology and pathology of sense organs, dyencefal pathology, electrophysiology, traumatic and infectious diseases of central nervous system. Has studied and described gas gangrene of a brain, has offered complex methods of therapy of fire wounds of a backbone. Has founded in BSSR the Neurochirurgy Centre of the Institute of Neurology, Physiotherapy and Neurochirurgy.
Has published more than 270 scientific works, 3 monographs. Has prepared more than 40 Candidates of Sciences and Doctors of Sciences.
1. Анаэробная инфекция мозга. М.: Медгиз, 1944.
2. Черепно-мозговые ранения и методы их лечения. М.: Медгиз, 1947.
3. Межнейронные аппараты связи - синапсы и их роль в физиологии и патологии. Мн.: АН БССР, 1948.
4. Hypothalamus: its role in physiology and pathology. Мoscow: Nauka, 1964.
5. Achievements of Soviet Medicine: A Brief Outline. Moscow: Foreign Languages Pub. House, 1960 (with Yu.P. Lisitsyn; New edition: University Press of the Pacific, 2003).
1. N.I. Grashchenkov // Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii. 1966. T.66, No.1.
2. Вейн А.М., Власов Н.А. Николай Иванович Гращенков (1901-1965). М.: Наука, 1985.
3. Kassil G. Prof. N. I. Grashchenkov // Nature. 1966. Vol.209, No.5027.
4. Van Bogaert L. N. I. Grashchenkov // Acta Neurol. Psychiatr. Belg. 1966. Vol.66, No.5.
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