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Doklady of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 2006, Vol.50, No.1

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Doklady of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 2006, Vol.50, No.1

DOKLADY OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF BELARUS
(Doklady Natsionalnoi Akademii Nauk Belarusi)

Published by The Belaruskaya Navuka Publishing House, Minsk, Republic of Belarus

Volume 50, Number 1; January-February, 2006

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CONTENTS


MATHEMATICS

Irkhin V. A., Matus P. P.
Exact difference schemes for the nonlinear transport equation. pp. 5--8.

Summary: In the article, the exact difference scheme is constructed for the nonlinear transport equation du/dt + c(x,t)du/dx = f(x,t,u), 0 < x £ 1, t > 0 where c(x,t) = c1(x)c2(t) >> 0, f(х, t, u) = f1(x,t) f2(u). The truncation error of this scheme is zero.

Bukhtoyarov S. E., Emelichev V. A.
Stability of a finite cooperative game with the parametric concept of equilibrium ("from Pareto to Nash"). pp. 9--11.

Summary: A parametric concept of equilibrium in a finite cooperative game of several players is introduced. The concept is determined by partitioning a player set into coalitions. Pareto optimal situation and Nash equilibrium situation correspond to two special cases of such a partition. Bounds are found for such perturbations of parameters of players linear payoff functions that do not yield the appearance of new efficient situations.

Gabasov R., Kirillova F. M., Makevich P. V.
Optimal observation of systems with delay. pp. 12--17.

Summary: A dual method of calculating extremal estimates to all positions arising in the course of the observation prosess for linear time-delay systems with an unknown but bounded parameter of an initial state is described.

Kharin Yu. S., Huryn A. S.
Statistical estimators of parameters of vector autoregressive time series under missing values and their asymptotic properties. pp. 18--24.

Summary: New estimators of parameters of vector autoregressive time series based on covariances are presented for the situation with missing values and their asymptotic properties are proved. Special cases of assumptions on the innovation process and on the so-called "pattern of missing values" are considered.

Kolyada A. A., Chernyavsky A. F.
Multiprocessor technology of module calculations. pp. 25--30.

Summary: Theoretical-methodological bases of the multiprocessor technology of module calculations are developed. A family of realizable computing processes fits in the additive-multiplicative model that excludes the rounding off. For performance of output code transformation a new method is offered which surpasses the known analogues both in complexity and in speed.

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INFORMATICS

Adutskevich E. V., Bakhanovich S. V., Likhoded N. A.
Conditions of data localization on sequential and parallel implementaion of algorithms. pp. 31--37.

Summary: Conditions to minimize communications, to improve the structure of communications, and to localize data within a processor are presented. The results of the article can serve as a theoretical basis for the development of procedures of optimized mapping of algorithms onto uniprocessor and multiprocessor systems.

Rylov A. S., Chyzhdzenka V. A.
Adaptable method of two-level speech recognition without essential limitations to chanal property and user quantity. pp. 38--40.

Summary: The method of speech recognition from any speakers is suggested in which templates-candidates are choosed from the template minimum speech units at the first (preliminary) recognition level. Characteristic vectors of template and test successions are formed at the second level to make more accurate recognition, using the rotation method up to the orthogonality concidence.

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PHYSICS

Saiko A. P., Markevich S. A.
Temperature hysteresis of magnetization in lanthanum-strontium manganite. pp. 41--43.

Summary: A theoretical explanation of a temperature hysteresis of magnetization of monocrystals of lantanum manganite La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 is given in the framework of a double exchange model taking into account the interaction of a magnetic subsystem with a bistable mode of tilting-rotary oscillations of correlated sublattice of octahedrons MnO6.

Gusak N. A.
Kinetics of charge gratings in the photorefractive anisotropic crystals. pp. 44--49.

Summary: Equations for the density of a charge grating and the concentration of free carriers in a photorefractive anisotropic crystal at a small modulation depth of exciting light are obtained. Solutions of the equations are found. It is shown that the kinetics of charge gratings is determined by not one exponential considered before but by a difference of two exponentials with their characteristic times depending on the times of Maxwell's relaxation, recombination, and diffusion.

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CHEMISTRY

Yegiazarov Yu. G., Soldatov V. S., Polikarpov A. P., Cherches B. Kh., Shachenkova L. N.
Synthesis and properties of proton-exchange membranes for hydrogen-air fuel cells. pp. 50--54.

Summary: Proton-exchange membranes (PEM) of several different types have been prepared. Homogeneous membranes on the base of polyethylene and polyethylene tetrafluoride films appeared the best in application to fuel cells. They were prepared by radiochemical grafting of copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene on the films with their following sulfonation.

Lakhvich F. A., Antonevich I. P., Katok Y. M.
Synthesis of condensed isoxazolines based on cyclopentadiene. pp. 55--58.

Summary: A number of cyclopentenoisoxazolines are synthesised by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of cyclopentadiene with various nitrile oxides. The spectral data of the products and the regio- and stereoselectivity of the cycloaddition reaction are discussed.

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BIOLOGY

Voluevich E. A., Buloichik A. A., Borzyak V. S.
Genetic nature of common wheat polygenetic resistance to brown rust. pp. 59--61.

Summary: Based on the study of the Triticum aestivum L. -- Puccinia triticina Erikss system, the first experimental verification of the hypothesis, that the polygenic resistance of plants to diseases consists of a nonspecific portion of resistance insurmountable by the pathogen, and of specific component involved in recognition of a plant by the pathogen, is obtained.

Starodubtseva M. N., Cherenkevich S. N., Bozhok T. N.
Structural resistibility of erythrocytes to osmotic shock at oxidative stress. pp. 62--65.

Summary: It is revealed that the structural resistibility of erythrocytes in hypotonic salt solution is determined at least by two different mechanisms of water and ion transport through membrane. The share of each transport mechanism is regulated by the quantity of an osmotic pressure transmembrane difference. The parameter characterizing the NaCl concentration in a solution for reaching the 50 % hemolysis of a suspension corresponds to the critical value of the NaCl concentration. The transition through the critical NaCl concentration leads to a significant change in the shares of each of the mechanisms of water and ion transport in the general hemolysis process. It is established that the oxidative stress caused by the peroxynitrite action on erythrocytes decreases the osmotic pressure transmembrane difference corresponding to the critical NaCl concentration in a solution and also increases the water and ion permeability of the erythrocyte membrane.

Domanskii V. P., Manankina E. E.
Chlorella as a test-object of a long-life biosensor for testing herbicides. pp. 66--69.

Summary: The possibility of using Chlorella cells for designing a long-life biosensor for testing herbicides was shown.

Lagonenko A. L., Nikolaichik Y. A., Evtushenkov A. N.
Characterization of harpin HrpW of Erwinia catotovora subsp. Atroseptica. pp. 70--73.

Summary: The HrpW protein is one of the type three secretion system effectors of phythopathogenic bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica. In this work some of the basic properties of the protein were investigated. The gene coding for this protein was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli and Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica. Partial purification of HrpW was carried out. We have demonstrated the ability of HrpW to be secreted through the type three secretion apparatus, its ability to induce the hypersensitive reaction when injected in the leaf tissues of non-host plant (Nicotiana tabacum). We have also shown that the protein is thermostable.

Yaronskaya E. B., Averina N. G.
Formation of the Mg-chelatase - methyltransferase enzyme complex and synchronization of its activity with the synthesis rate of 5-aminolevulinic acid in barley seedlings. pp. 74--77.

Summary: The synthesis rate of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), Mg-chelatase and Mg-protoporphyrin IX methyltransferase (MTF) activities and the levels of these enzymes in the chlorophyll-deficient barley mutants albostrians and xantha u-21 were investigated. A simultaneous reduction of CHL H, CHL I and MTF levels, a synchronous decrease of the activities of these enzymes as well as an ALA-synthesizing capacity of mutant seedlings are indicative for a tight enzyme complex of Mg-chelatase and MTF in higher plants and support the idea about the existence of the mechanism that coordinates the activities of two key steps in the chlorophyll pathway, ALA and Mg-porphyrin synthesis.

Dubovets N. I., Sycheva E. A.
Expression of nucleolar-forming loci of wheat and rye chromosomes in tetraploid triticale genome. pp. 78--80.

Summary: The phenomenon of intergenomic suppression causing the silencing of gene copies duplicated during polyploidization was studied by way of example of nucleolar chromosomes of wheat and rye in 4x-triticale genome composition. A relationship was revealed between the rRNA suppression level of rye chromosome loci and the functional activity of nucleolar wheat chromosomes present in the karyotype. The silencing was shown to be reversible: elimination of major nucleolar wheat chromosomes from the karyotype results in complete recovery of the rRNA expression of rye loci.

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MEDICINE

Malinovsky G. F.
Modern aspects of treatment of patients with obstructions of nasolacrimal ways. pp. 81--82.

Summary: In the present article the results of treatment of 135 patients with obstructions of nasolacrimal ways are analyzed. The method of treatment of obstructions of nasolacrimal ways offered by the author is applied in clinical practice over 10 years. The differentiated selection of patients in view of medical indications, obligatory drainage of nasolacrimal ways after elimination of obstructions allows one to gain high functional and economic benefit.

Kirillov V. A., Stebenyeva E. E., Demidchik E. P.
Metastasis process as malignant cell cloning in vivo. Karyometric analysis ofthyrocytes. pp. 83--88.

Summary: A comparative karyometric study of thyrocytes from the thyroid gland with papillary cancer and from the cervical lymph nodes with metastases was carried out. It was established that primary tumor cells had pronounced quantitative features of nuclei atypia in comparison with normal cells. At the same time, the differences of the karyometric features of a malignant cell primary clone from the thyroid gland and the secondary clone from the cervical lymph nodes were less pronounced.

Churakov A. V., Spas V. V., Smeyanovich A. F., Pletnev S. V.
Treatment of severe craniocerebral injury patients using a low-frequency variable electromagnetic field. pp. 89--93.

Summary: The developed approach for treatment of neurotraumatic patients using a variable electromagnetic field (VEMF) decreases and/or, in the majority of cases, prevents the development of secondary brain damage factors. Just these factors determine the clinical forecast and the results of treatment in acute and remote periods after severe cranial trauma (SCT). Application of the developed methods allows one to reduce the mortality level, invalidization, social disadaptation, and the hospital term.

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EARTH SCIENCES

Galkin A. N.
Engineering geological zoning of the territory of Belarus. pp. 94--98.

Summary: A new scheme of engineering geological zoning of Belarus is described. On considering the pecularities of the geological development for the newest stage, the character of neotectonic movements, the structure of relief and the geological structure of superficial mass, two engineering geological regions of the second order, five engineering geological areas of the first order, 71 engineering geological areas of the second order are allocated. The engineering geological areas stood apart inside the areas within the limits of the borders of the sedimentation distribution of one geological genetic complex. In comparison with the earlier published answers a new variant of the zoning scheme of the territory of Belarus to the greatest degree corresponds to the modern condition of knowledge about the engineering geological condition of the region and the needs of practice as well.

Taran L. N., Onoshko M. P., Navosha Yu. Yu.
Origin and composition of organic matter of Precambrian black shales of Belarus. pp. 99--102.

Summary: Palaeoproterozoic high-carbon rocks of the Okolovo suit have been studied by infra-red spectroscopy with the infent to reconstruct an origin and composition of organic matter. The predominance of aliphatic groups in the bitumen structure suggests mostly the sapropel type of organic sediments. The oxydation state of bitumen can suggest the high absorption of organic matter to noble metals.

Aronova T. I.
Seismotectonic features of the Kaliningrad earthquakes on September 21, 2004. pp. 103--106.

Summary: The article deals with the earthquakes that took place in the Kaliningrad region (Russia) on 21 September, 2004 and were felt on the territories of Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Belarus, and Finland. Data on space and time coordinates and dynamic parameters of these earthquake foci available from the international centers and various seismological are analyzed. The epicentral zone of the Kaliningrad earthquakes is found in the western part of the old East European platform. The seismotectonic map presenting the territories of Belarus and the Baltic States was considered, and the Kaliningrad-Lithuanian potential seismogenic area was analyzed. Methods used to outline possible earthquake zones, when seismic zoning of the Belarussian-Baltic region was carried out, were verified in practice and, actually, made possible a long-term forecast of earthquake origination in Kaliningrad.

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TECHNICAL SCIENCES

Matyuk V. F., Osipov A. A.
Central demagnetization coefficient of cylinders. pp. 107--109.

Summary: The designed common formula allows one to compute the central demagnetization coefficient of bodies in the form of cylinder with high magnetic permeability when its relative length is varied from zero to infinity. The results of computation are in good conformity with known experimental data and with calculations of other authors in the range of applicability of their formulae.

Aderikha V. N., Valendo A. Ya., Pleskachevskii Yu. M., Voronova E. I., Shapovalov V. A., Gerasimenko S. A.
Mechanical properties and the structure of graphite-filled ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene. pp. 110--113.

Summary: Synthesis of UHMWPE on graphite is shown to produce a polymerization-filled system with a high level of interphase adhesion and a low concentration of defects at the interphase boundary, which ensures higher deformation-and-strength characteristics compared to mechanically filled composites and higher toughness up to maximum filler contents. A weak interaction at the interphase boundary, a higher defect content, and aggregation of a dispersed filler, especially at high filling explain the deterioration of the mechanical behavior at high filler contents in mechanically filled composites.

Vysotchky M. S., Dokukova N. A., Konon P. N.
Research method of mechanical oscillatory systems using differential operators. pp. 114--119.

Summary: The presented technique for research of complex dynamic systems consecutively using differential operators allows one to omit tedious mathematical calculations, to replace a system of three connected differential 2nd order equations with three linear non-uniform differential 6-th order equations independently of one another with constant factors, to establish laws of the influence of physical parameters on the dynamic properties of a mechanical system in the form of simple analytical formulas. It is a general method for studying movements of passive vibroisolation shock-absorbers, their stability and quality. It is can be extended to other linear or linearised mechanical oscillatory systems of higher orders.

Yausei A. U., Prokopchuk N. P.
Recycling of PET bottles by jet molding. pp. 120--124.

Summary: The technology allowing the manufacturing of a qualitative constructional material out of recycled PET is developed. Interaction of components of a blend on micro- and macrolevels is described.

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