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Proc. of the Natl. Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Ser. Phys.-Eng. Sci., 2001, No.3

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Proc. of the Natl. Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Ser. Phys.-Eng. Sci., 2001, No.3

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus
(Vestsi Natsiyanalnai Akademii Navuk Belarusi)
SERIES OF PHYSICAL-ENGINEERING SCIENCES

Published by The Belaruskaya Navuka Publishing House, Minsk, Republic of Belarus

Number 3, 2001

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CONTENTS


MATERIALS ENGINEERING

Kurilovich N. N., Ogorodov L. I.
The damage accumulation in the EP-182 and EI-765 alloys at the time-dependant loading and the flat stress state. pp. 5--9

Summary: The influence of the stress tensor sphere part on the long-term strength of the two alloys in the conditions of the flat stressed state and disproportional loading has been shown in the paper.

Khmyl A. A., Polevikov V. M., Emelyanov V. A., Kushner L. K., Chijik S. A., Mushovets I. I.
The analysis of electrochemically deposited silver coatings using methods of scanning probe microscope and electric contact simulation. pp. 10--14

Summary: The layout and structure of silver-based coatings for low-current electrical contacts using the scanning probe microscopy were studied. Being on the results of taken measurements, contact conductivity and contact characteristics were calculated with account of surface roughness. Departing from the criteria of minimization of coating's friction force and increase of contact conductivity, time of electrochemical deposition was selected for modes of deposition under direct and pulse currents as well as during the coatings with ultradispersed diamonds.

Davidovich V. A.
The technological parameters influence of the cross-wedge reducing on the structural conditions of the hypoeutectoid steels by the example of 40X steel. pp. 15--17

Summary: Multi-operational cross-wedge reducing technology and equipment of large-sized industrial rods wastes were developed. Optimum combinations of the number of the operations, pressing degrees and temperature for obtaining reduced billets with improved mechanical characteristics were found on the base of accomplished researches.

Milashevskaya I. G., Selivanov O. V., Stankevich E. V.,Tochitsky E. I.
The structure and properties of multilayer C--Ti, C--Cr coatings, obtained from pulsed flows of vacuum arc discharge plasma. pp. 18--22

Summary: Investigation results of influence of deposition conditions, quantity and thickness of layers on structure and mechanical properties of multilayer C--Ti-, C--Cr-coatings deposited from pulsedflows of vacuum arc discharge plasma are presented.

Klubovich V. V., Pivovarchik A. A., Chernov V. F.
The ultrasonic testing of the segnetelectric materials electromechanical parameters. pp. 23--24

Summary: The analysis of dependence of an electrical impedance equivalent to a circuit of cegnetelectric sample from the frequency of external acoustic influence is carried out. The technique of the control of electromechanical properties of cegnetelectric materials allowing to estimate electromechanical communication factor in researched samples is described. Presence of dependence of mobility of elements filler from intensity poliroide of an electrical field is shown experimentally.

Kovchur S. G., Pyatov V. V., Kovchur A. S., Netsev Yu. A.
The electrotechnical purposes items production process from the copper powder, extracted from the galvanic wastes. pp. 25--29

Summary: The investigation of galvanic waste containing copper composition were carried out and the technology for their extraction was worked out. The research on physicochemical, mechnical and technological properties of copper powder was done. On the base of experimental data the technolodgy of production items of electrotech-nical purpose from the besieged powder was worked out and an experimental lot of these items was produced.

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RELIABILITY AND DURABILITY OF MACHINES

Pochtenny E. K.
The designs resource estimation at the multimode loading. pp. 30--33

Summary: The technique of an estimation of resources, dangerous in sense of a fatigue of zones of designs is esteemed, which one includes methods: schematizations of random loading with allocation as variation series of stresses of load units of the operational frequencies of loading; approximating of variation series with usage of the cumulative distribution function of Weibull; estimations of a cycle longevity at operating load units of each frequency; transition from a cycle life to longevity in kilometers of run and sum of damaging operating of load units of miscellaneous frequencies; summation of damaging operating of standard modes of exploitation, including both loading and unloading and estimation of multiply recurring working process recource.

Yaroshevich V. K., Belotserkovsky M. A., Jafar Akhmad
The tribotechnical properties of the coatings, used for the engines crankshaft journals recovery. pp. 34--36

Summary: The features of different composition wire materials, inflicted by the gas method on the steel base, are explored. The wire 40X13 possesses the best characteristics for recovering the crankshafts of engines.

Tarasik V. P., Rynkevich S. A.
The problems of creation of the vehicles intellectual control systems. pp. 37--51

Summary: In given clause it is marked, that the classical theory of automatic control does not give an opportunity of the account of all variety of conditions of functioning of vehicles. According to this fact, efficiency of created systems on its scientific principles appears more often below expected. The creation of intellectual control systems seems as an exit from this situation which considerably facilitate work of the operator (driver) and are capable to carry out a number of intellectual functions of the man. Problem of synthesis of algorithms of management of the vehicle with elements of artificial intelligence is urgent. The methodology of synthesis of algorithms of management of subsystems of the vehicle is resulted which is based on the mathematical tool of the theory of indistinct sets. It enables: 1) to describe and to process in parallel any set information variable, mechanisms, describing a condition, and systems of the vehicle, parameters and characteristics of external environment, feature both characteristic mental, physical and emotional condition of the driver, 2) to provide management at a qualitatively new level -- level of intelligent acceptance of the decisions and humanoid reasonings, 3) to synthesize algorithm of management of the vehicle having property of adaptation to real conditions of movement of the machine. For improvement of the stated conceptual questions the intellectual control system of vehicles is designed and its model sample is created at the Mogilev state technical university. The prime task was a task of management of power modes of the vehicle, which one was achieved with success. The carried out laboratory researches of intellectual system with application of computing means have confirmed its serviceability and have proved a management efficiency by the automobile, and also correctness of such systems, used at construction, of scientific principles. The ways, mentioned in the article, of the decision of the problem are the important step to creation adaptive and self-learning algorithms of management at designing of intellectual systems of automobiles.

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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

Dubrovsky A. A.
The hard-alloy tool wear at handling of pig-iron. pp. 52--60

Summary: The functionability of the hard-alloy tool at pig-iron cutting is determined by an aspect of contact interaction, ability to resist adgesion and diffusion wear process and microchip intensity at velocities of zone at incrustation formation (fragile destruction) and at velocities of existence plastic and ductile contacts (destruction in an outcome of the creep process).

Knyazeva A. G., Pobol I. L.
Stress evaluation of ceramic -- substrate joint in the diffusion zone. pp. 61--73

Summary: The consideration is made of the experimental and theoretical investigations of residual stress formation in ceramic--substrate joint obtained by electron beam brazing using active fillers of the Ag--Cu--Ti system. When brazing a cubic boron nitride to steel it is experimentally established that the distribution of residual stresses in joint is rather complicated. The problems of a system mechanical equilibrium and diffusion of elements in ceramic--filler--substrate assembly are analysed using known kinetic models.

Kachanov I. V.
The high-speed hot extrusion of the cast iron rod products. pp. 74--78

Summary: The optimum regime of temperature-speed braking (the temperature of heating T0 = 800--1000°C, the extract l = 1.94--4.0, the deformation speed V0 = 10--100 m/s) rod products from cast iron is established. On the basis of the marked optimum parameters the new way of manufacturing of cast-iron rod products is created and the technology of high-speed hot breaking of cast iron electrodes from malleable of cast iron 37-12 for electro erosive processing firm alloy of matrixes is developed.

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RADIOELECTRONICS AND INSTRUMENT MAKING

Zhizhenko G. A., Dovgyallo A. G.
The electric discharge visualization method particularities for the thin organic films. pp. 79--81

Summary: The possibilities of the appearance of artefactes in the method of elektric discharge diagnostic on thin film from organic recording materials have been indicated. The methods of their eliminations are proposed.

Yarusov A. G., Lazakovich S. P.
The temperature measurement automated system. pp. 82--86

Summary: The system is intended for use in a various management information system production technology, at experimental researches in the field of mechanical engineering, biology, medicine etc. Measuring temperatures lay in range from minus 50 °C to+ 120 °C. The gauges of temperature are produced on the basis of digital thermometers of a type DS 1820, making in integrated package by Dallas Semiconductor firm. An error of measuring temperature in the basic mode of use of gauges is less than ± 2 °C, in the mode of the increased accuracy --± 0.1 C. Time of one measurement is 0.2 s. The technical means of system and functions of the software are described.

Andreev A. D., Kolkovski V. I., Komarov F. F., Lyudchik O. R., Mikhei V. N.
The electron emission and generation leakage currents in n-channel MOSFET. pp. 87--89

Summary: The substrate ionization current are measured, electron mean free path and energy are defined for dopant levels substrate 1022, 7• 1023 m-3 MOSFETs. Electron emission and generation currents are calculated as a function of drain n+ - p junction depth. It is shown that emission and generation electron currents have opposite dependence on drain n+ - p junction depth.

Alishev Ia. V., Uryadov V. N., Vorob'ev V. L., Cherednichenko N. M.
The interrelative influences between forward and backward channels in interactive fibre-optical telecommunication networks. pp. 90--93

Summary: The capabilities of onefibre fullduplex channel with doublesided transfer within one spectral range are shown Dependense of minimal useful signal on transfer speed is counted. Advices are obtained for optimizing disknotting of duplex channels.

Chernobay I. A.
The noise-immune ultrasonic method for the gas flow measurement. pp. 94--98

Summary: The ultrasonic noise-stability method for gas flow measurement has been proposed which based on the simultaneous opposing radiation of ultrasonic waves with a different frequency throughout the tested flow. The measurement is implementing according the phase difference of the extracted waves with frequency beats between the transmitted and received signals. On the base of this method the ultrasonic gas flowmeter-counter has been developed and it was tested in the industrial conditions successfully.

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ENGINEERING CYBERNETICS

Petko V. I., Kukonin V. E., Vystavnaya E. I.
The investigation of the possible areas of Hammerstain operator usage. pp. 99--103

Summary: The carried out researches of areas of use of the Hammerstein operator show, that it is applicable for a narrow class of nonlinear dynamic objects. The operator is applicable only to objects such as the filter of the lower frequencies and with a condition, that the character of nonlinearity in them does not change with transition from a statics to dynamics. The recommendations for agreement of two model parts of object are given.

Katkov V. L.
The cellular automata of the honeycomb type and it's usage for the forest fire simulation. pp. 104--109

Summary: For modeling tasks by the method of cellular automata it is offered its modification using the cells as hexagons (honeycomb). The model allows simplifying calculation of cellular automata states. The program realization of the hexagonal cellular automata was considered and was shown that it does not concede under the characteristics to cellular automata of a traditional type. The results of work are illustrated on a task of modeling a forest fire.

Alekseev G. I., Vasilyev E. Yu., Milman V. A.
Calculation and optimization of a digitizer inductive system using the simplified model. pp. 110--115

Summary: We consider a simplified model of a digitizer inductive system. Wires of matrix are assumed to be straight and infinite, cursor is represented by fiat circular wire. We express the measurement error value by inductive system parameters. The approximate formula for optimal value of cursor radius is obtained.

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MECHANICS

Guenfoud S.
To the theory of the design in polar coordinates of plates resting on any type of elastic foundation. pp. 116--122

Summary: Design, in polar coordinates, of the plates of complicated shape in the plane, with any flexibility, under action of an arbitrary external load and resting on any type of elastic foundation is proposed to apply using a universal approach, based on the method of Gemochkin. This approach makes it possible to solve this complicated problem by the methods of the structural mechanics. Examples of calculation by this approach are given.

Vantsevich V. V., Vysotski M. S., Doubovik D. A.
The control of the vehicle dynamics at curvilinear movement. pp. 123--128

Summary: The control problem of the distribution of the circumferential forces among the drive wheels of a motor vehicle has been considered in the article. A new method of a two-criterion optimization of the circumferential wheel forces has been proposed. This method takes into account criteria both of traction vehicle performance (cross country ability) and steerability of the vehicle. Computation results of investigations of an 8WD vehicle in motion are given. These optimal distributions of the circumferential forces among the drive wheels are fundamentals for building a logical algorithm to control the vehicle's dynamics.

Kirilenko A. T.
The vibration transmission from the underground tunnel to buildings caused by rail movements (review). pp. 129--134

Summary: A review of the theoretical and experimental studies of the underground tunnel structures, the ground surface and buildings as well as of vibration reduction methods is made.

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THERMAL PHYSICS, HEAT ENGINEERING, HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER

Chichko A. N., Leontiev A. A.
Computer modeling of the heating processes of solids with 3d-geometry. pp. 135--138

Summary: The computer method of modeling of three-dimensional temperature fields for heating process of 3d-objects is offered. The comparative analysis of semi-analytical methods used in computation of heating devices and the computer method based on the heat conductivity equation is submitted.

Valitski E., Valitska A., Makhanyok A. A.
The Bulcley--Gershel liquid flow between two surfaces of revolution with porous walls. pp. 139--145

Summary: The influence of the wall porosity on the pressure distribution of a Bulcley--Gershel fluid flowing in the clearance between two surfaces of revolution is considered. As result one obtains the formulae expressing the pressure distribution. The example of a squeeze film between parallel disks is discussed in detail.

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NUCLEAR POWER ENGINEERING

Solovjev V. N., Bida L. A., Leonova V. V., Levchuk A. S., Khilko L. I., Fokina G. I., Pleschankov I. G.
The investigation of occurrence forms of 137Cs and 90Sr in components of pine-tree plantations in the neighboring of the Chemobyl NPP zone. pp. 146--149

Summary: The results of the investigation of the 137Cs and 90Sr in soil, wood litter, bark and wood of pine-trees are presented, as well as the results of determination of granulometric composition and radioactivity of wood litter specimens. It is seen from the results obtained that 137Cs is presented in the more contaminated (radioactive) components of pine-tree biocenosis, in the fixed forms mainly. Consequently, one can suppose that it is an element leached hardly from the components of wood vegetation. 90Sr is mainly in exchangeable and mobile state in the pointed out wood components, so its leaching and, consequently, are ability to migration is higher.

Barashenkov V. S., Buttsev V. S., Chigrinov S. E., Dudarev S. Yu., Gudovski V., Kiyavitskaya H. I., Polanski A., Puzynin I. V., Rakhno I. L., Sisakyan A. N.
Fast sub-critical assembly with MOX fuel for research on nuclear waste transmutation. pp. 150--153

Summary: The paper deals with theoretical investigation of transmutation rates for a number of long-lived fission products and minor actinides as well as with neutron spectra formed in a sub-critical assembly driven with the following monodirectional beams: (i) 660 MeV protons; (ii) 14 MeV neutrons. In this work the main objective is the comparison of neutron spectrum in the MOX assembly for different external driving sources: 660 MeV proton accelerator and 14 MeV neutron generator. The SAD project (JINR, Russia) has being discussed. In the frame of this project a sub-critical assembly consisting of cylindrical lead target surrounded by cylindrical MOX fuel layer will be constructed. Present conceptual design of the sub-critical assembly is based on the core with a nominal unit capacity of 15 kW (thermal). This corresponds to the multiplication coefficient keff = 0.945 and the accelerator beam power of 0.5 kW. The results of theoretical investigations on a possibility to incinerate long-lived fission products and minor actinides in fast neutron spectrum, formation of neutron spectra with different hardness in sub-critical systems based on the MOX subcritical assembly are discussed.

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ANNOTATIONS FOR DEPOSITED PAPERS

Chemobay I. A., Domanov Ya. A.
The analysis of the theoretical models description accuracy of the gas velocity profile in the cylindrical pipelines. p. 154

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