Maria Tikhonovna Chaika (31.12.1929, Gorki, Mogilev region – 30.09.1997), physiologist, plant biochemist. Corresponding Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (1991). Doctor of Biological Sciences (1978), Professor (1992).
Scientific research in the field of physiology and biochemistry of the photosynthetic apparatus, fundamental work on the physiology of the plastid apparatus and the biogenesis of photosynthetic membranes. Concepts of the connection of the chlorophyll formation process with the general chloroplast metabolism and the vital activity of plants are developed. The use of immunochemical approaches in combination with the methods of protein chemistry made it possible to experimentally show that when synthesized in the light of the main pigment-protein complexes of photosynthesis photosystems, proteins synthesized in the dark are used. The features of the localization of a key enzyme system performing the photoreduction of protochlorophyllide have been studied. The role of the adaptation potential of the photosynthetic apparatus under stress conditions in a set of genotypes of cereals at different levels of the organization in ensuring high productivity and resistance of plants was studied. Methodical techniques have been developed that are used in plant breeding and creating environmentally friendly technologies, in particular, inlaying seeds of the most important grain crops cultivated in Belarus.
Author of more than 100 scientific papers, incl. 3 monographs, 3 inventions.